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how to measure water flow rateNanofiltration and also softening:Water conditioning normally includes the removal of firmness ions, specifically calcium and also Magnesium. Because these ions are multivalent, they’re preferentially eliminated by NF membranes. In fact, NF has actually been made use of for a number of years for local conditioning, specifically in Florida. The advantage of NF over an RO, the various other membrane layer modern technology that denies ions, is that NF has a greater flux rate. This implies that less membrane elements are needed and it operates at a lower pump stress pounds per square inch (psi) or bars consequently providing cost savings in operating expenses. The particular benefit of membrane layer modern technology in this application is that no chemicals are called for to assist in the removal of hardness ions, whether soda lime for local softening or common salt (sodium chloride) in the case of regeneration of typical property water softeners.